The Monograph “Mineral Resources of the Republic of Srpska” represents a synthesis of large documentation on the geological researches in the territory of the Republic of Srpska, primarily from the fund of expert documentation of the Republic Survey from Zvornik and the other papers. All mineral resources found in the territory of the Republic of Srpska had been treated in detail during the different geological researches for a long period of time.
The most ore deposits and occurrences of mineral resources had been discovered or determined during the preparation of the Basic Geological Map (from 1958 to 1980) and the knowledge about it had been extended and supplemented by detail explorations after 1980.
Detailed geological researches discovered about 60 different mineral resources and it was published in the Monograph. Some of them are explored in detail and intensively exploited (coal, iron, lead, zinc, bauxite, thermal and mineral waters, clays, rocks used as technical stone…), and some are determined as the occurrences for which further geological researches are needed in the aim of increasing the level of knowledge.
The preparation of the Monograph lasted for several years and it contains: 473 pages of text with 96 photographs and 444 tables, a spreadsheet of the mineral resources with concessions for exploitation (until 22/12/2010) and 78 pages with shortened text translated into the English language. At the end there are the reviews written by eminent experts in the field of geology.
The text of the Monograph is divided into seven chapters.
- In the first chapter there are the tectonic and origin characteristics of the area of the Republic of Srpska, because the most part of the mineral resources is originally directly or indirectly connected to global tectonic activities and volcanic activities during the evolution of the Earth crust.
- Metallogenic and mineragenic units of the Republic of Srpska are given in the second chapter of the Monograph. For each of them there is a shorten review of spreading, lithostratigraphic characteristics, separated small unites and the review of the mineral resources within them.
-The third and the fourth chapters deal with ferrous and non-ferrous metals, that mean the deposits and occurrences of iron, manganese, lead, zinc, bauxite, copper, mercury, gold, antimony, arsenic, nickel, cobalt, uranium, tin, tungsten, molybdenum, bismuth and cadmium.
-In the fifth chapter there are shown the energy mineral resources. All bearings of coal, the results of oil geological explorations, the proposals for further explorations and geothermal potential of the Republic of Srpska are given in details.
- The sixth chapter contains the data about the ore bearings and occurrences of non-metallic mineral resources in the territory of The Republic of Srpska: roof and graphitic shales, beryl, feldspar, fluorite, mica, vein and crystalline quartz, asbestos, magnesite, talc, olivine, sepiolite, gypsum, silicate rocks, white bauxite, barite, tuff, zeolite, quartz sand, bentonite, clays, kaolin, mineral pigments, rocks used as technical constructional material.
- The seventh chapter deals with groundwaters (fresh, thermal, mineral and thermo-mineral).
The origin, research history, determined reserves for explored bearings and the use are given for each mineral resource.
The Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining and the Republic Survey for Geological Researches concluded that the Monograph “Mineral Resources of the Republic of Srpska” is of great importance and it transparently and on a high expert level represents the mineral resources of the Republic of Srpska.
It is planned that this Monograph represents a base for preparation of the Strategy of mineral resources management of the Republic of Srpska.
METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCES
In the territory of the Republic of Srpska there are 19 determined ore deposits and occurrences of metallic mineral resources. Lead, silver and iron have been exploited during the centuries and the mines of iron, lead, zinc (together with silver and cadmium) and bauxite (to obtain aluminum) are active today. Besides the determined occurrences of some metals there are also the tailings of the mines of iron, lead and zinc interesting for the researches. Some metals in these mines had been removed together with overburden during the exploitation (because of low concentration or technical impossibility).
ENERGY MINERAL RESOURCES (coal and oil)
The coal deposits exist within all geotectonic units of the Dinarides and spread in the whole territory of the Republic of Srpska. There are several coal basins whose bearings and exploitation represent the most important energy resource in the Republic of Srpska.
Oil-geological explorations of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1889 in the area of Majevica Mt. The most important period of regional and detailed oil-geological researches was the period between 1973 and 1992, when the prospective areas had been determined. The detail oil-geological researches continued in 2011.
NON-METALLIC MINERAL RESOURCES
In the territory of the Republic of Srpska there are the deposits and occurrences of 37 types of non-metallic resources. Their important characteristics are low specific investments and low risk of investment in mining production, short term of explorations and starting exploitation and transformation of a resource into a commercial product.
The most common use of non-metals is as technical construction stone, and for that purpose are used: limestone, dolomite, travertine and travertinized sends, marble, diabase and metadiabase, gabbro, serpentinites and serpentinized peridotites. The exploitation of clays, gypsum and bentonite is also very important as well as the exploitation of mineral pigments and zeolitic tuff. There are some other non-metals in the territory of the Republic of Srpska which also could be explored.
FRESH, THERMAL, MINERAL AND THERMOMINERAL WATER RESOURCES
The aquifers appear in all unites of the Dinarides. Surface waters and groundwaters of the Republic of Srpska belong to the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea basins. In the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republic of Srpska there are 4 basic hydrogeological regions. Smaller or larger units could be separated within each of them. The most important reserves of groundwater appear within porous and karst aquifers.
In the territory of the Republic of Srpska there are 63 deposits and occurrences of the mineral resources (metallic, non-metallic and energy) and groundwater (fresh, mineral, thermal and thermomineral).
Excerpts from reviews:
This paper represents the synthesis of the complete results of the detailed and regional geological researches of the Republic of Srpska, primarily as a document which contains the review of mineral resources status and prospective as a base for further explorations.
It is well-known that neither one of developed countries has not renounced its mineral resource complex. On the contrary, they take care about rational managing of mineral resources, not only through the increasing of the researches, but also through the national strategy of exploitation.
Reading this Monograph, which contains the review of the deposits and occurrences of more than 50 different mineral resources, it is confirmed that the mineral resource complex of the Republic of Srpska represents real capital. This fact shows the need and obligation for higher investments in the further geological explorations.
The authors of the Monograph tried to review in details all existing large documentation on decades-long geological researches in the territory of the Republic of Srpska, stored in the Fund of professional documentation of the Republic Survey for Geological Researches, Zvornik and to represent it in the best way. The intention was to create a book with important applicable values for further geological researches and education and I think it was done very successfully.
The Monograph “Mineral Resources of the Republic of Srpska”, as a synthesis of all existing data about mineral resource potential in the territory of the Republic of Srpska, represents a very good base for the preparation of the Strategy on managing and rational use of the mineral resources.
Dr Lazar Vujnović
The Monograph represents very important geological documentation and contains all known deposits and occurrences of the mineral resources of the Republic of Srpska and wider. This Monograph will have an important and strategic role in making decisions on further investment periods for researches, exploitation or concessions on the mineral resources of the Republic of Srpska.
By this document, the authors in an experiential and synchronized way presented all mineral resources of the Republic of Srpska, according to the level of exploration and economical priorities, started with metellogenic and mineragenic units, determined mineralization, metallic and non-metallic resources and groundwater.
The potential of the Republic of Srpska, according to the large geological setting and the results presented in the Monograph, shows that the Republic of Srpska is on a high level regarding the mineral resources and has respectable place in the region.
It was my pleasure to spend a long time revising the Monograph and I express my commendations to my colleagues for comprehensive and professional activities on the document which will be the base for further activities of economic and state organization and for providing the conditions for spreading economical valorization and research of mineral resources of the Republic of Srpska and also for the concession approvals to interested subjects.
It was my pleasure to revise this Monograph.
Dr Mile Bugarin